Paratyphoid is caused by Salmonella bacteria. Rats and squirrels are the usual carriers of this bacteria. Wing paralysis, leg paralysis, twisting of necks are all various forms of paratyphoid disease. It is also characterized by swelling in the joints of the wings. Some illiterate fanciers say that it is caused by excessive heat of the sun or by air, which is NOT true. The medicine of choice for treating paratyphoid is Enrofloxacin 10% oral solution (sold under the names Enflocin / Enrocin/ Meriquin/QuinRocin in India and outside india under the name Baytril). This medicine is avaiable only in veterinary medical shops (or) in the shops that sell poultry medicines.
Enrofloxacin Dosage: 4 drops per pigeon a day in morning(on empty stomach) for 14 days and in the evening one cod-liver oil capsule to each pigeon, every two days for 14 days. Multivitamins(Viselam or Vimeral) should also be given every week for 3 consecutive days in the evening only. Keep the birds on small grains like finger millet(raagi), pearl millet(bajra), canary seeds(raala), and yellow mustard seeds(sarson or peeli rai) in equal proportions. After feeding these grains, soaked green gram or soaked chaney ki dal should be given to the birds without fail everyday until they get well.
NOTE: Please use a dropper/ink filler to administer Enrofloxacin oral solution. DO NOT USE SYRINGE TO ADMINISTER ENROFLOXACIN.
***PMV(New Castle Disease)****
This diseased is caused by virus called Paramyxovirus. The main symptoms of this disease are head/neck shaking (twisting of necks is not seen) and diarrhea. The loft has to be cleaned AND WASHED THOROUGHLY with a strong disinfectant like Virkon-S. The sick birds should be separated and fed separetly. SADLY THERE IS NO CURE FOR THIS DISEASE. ONLY PREVENTION BY VACCINATING THE HEALTHY BIRDS IS THE ONLY CURE.
THE SICK BIRDS SHOULDE BE GIVEN ONE COD-LIVER OIL TABLET EVERY ALTERNATE DAY UNTIL THEY GET WELL. Multivitamins(Viselam or Vimeral) should also be given every week for 3 consecutive days in the evening. Keep the birds on small grains like finger millet(raagi), pearl millet(bajra), canary seeds(raala), and yellow mustard seeds(sarson or peeli rai) in equal proportions. After feeding these grains, soaked green gram(hari moong) (or) soaked bengal gram(chaney ki dal) should be given to the birds without fail everyday until they get well.
Godwilling !!! some of the birds may recover and survive.
Care should be taken to ensure that the sick birdsí droppings do not get mixed with feed and water. This is very important. If you are using soil/sand for flooring, please remove the soil/sand immediately and wash the loft thoroughly with a disinfectant. Sick pigeons spread this disease to other healthy birds by defecating and when these bird droppings are ingested by the healthy birds (when they eat soil/grain mixed with the droppings) they too get infected !!!
PLEASE NOTE: VIRUS SURVIVES IN WATER. IF THE LOFT IS MOIST AND HAS STAGNATED WATER/RAIN WATER AROUND, THERE ARE HIGH CHANCES FOR THE PIGEONS TO GET INFECTED WITH VIRAL DISEASES. SO PLEASE KEEP YOUR LOFT DRY DRY DRY DRY DRY DRY .....................
***Sour Crop (due to E.coli and Adenovirus)****
Sour crop is caused by increase in e.coli bacteria in the gut of pigeons. This is also called food poisoning(Zeherbad in urdu). Most of the fanciers think that this disease is due to poisoning of the food grains with pesticides, WHICH IS NOT TRUE. The pigeons do not eat and stand in a corner with their crops filled with stinking fluid and it looks like a hanging pouch. The e.coli infection, if not treated immediately, multiply in large numbers and cause adenovirus infection, and when adenovirus attacks your pigeons, the pigeons start vomiting and defecate with foul smelling slimy droppings.
For both (e.coli and adenovirus) symptoms use Neomycin sulphate and doxycycline powder (combination), which is sold under the name Neodox Forte in India.
Alternative medicine: You can also try N-Doxy medicine to treat this disease, if Neodox Forte is not available.
Treatment for the pigeons suffering from sour crop:-
1. Remove the stagnated fluid from crop by gently squeezing the crop with your fingers, with the pigeon facing in downward direction.
2. Next, give 1-2 gm of Neodox Forte powder to the infected pigeon dissolved in water with a syringe for 4 days. For flock treatment, you can dissolve this medicine in water and feed them according to the ratio given above. Better results are obtained if the dosage is increased depending upon the severity of the disease.
NOTE: In emergency, when Neodox Forte is unavailable, you can use baking soda to treat sour crop. Mix 2 gm of baking soda in 20 ml water and give it to the infected pigeon using a syringe.
***Streptococcosis(Swelling in toe joints)***
Often you might have seen swelling in middle toe joints of your pigeons. This is due to streptococcus infection, and the disease is called streptococcosis. Ampicillin/Tetracycline is the drug of choice for this disease. Enrofloxacin/Baytril is not effective in this disease and should not be used for treating this disease.
DOSAGE: 25 mg tetracycline/terramycin/subamycin/Ampicillin tablet/capsule powder for 5 days. It not cured, the medicine is to be continued for some days.
Canker is caused by Trichomanas bacteriae. The symptoms of this disease are whitish or yellowish white masses in the throats of the pigeons. Flagyl (metronidazole) is the drug of choice for treating this disease. Clean the throat with a pigeon feather and give Flagyl-25 mg (powdered) to the infected pigeon.
DOSAGE: 25 mg for 3 days depending on the degree of the illness. If it is a severe case, dosage is to be increased but it should not exceed 100 mg in any case.
For any eye disease, use Terramycin eye ointment or Ciprofloxacin eye ointment.
NOTE: I have come to know that some people open the Terramycin capsule and put the powder in the eyes pf the pigeons. YOU SHOULD NEVER PUT TERRAMYCIN CAPSULE POWDER IN THE EYES OF THE PIGEONS,THE PIGEONS WILL LOSE THEIR EYESIGHT PERMANENTLY. ONLY TERRAMYCIN EYE OINTMENT/CIPROFLOXACIN EYE OINTMENT SHOULD BE APPLIED TO THE EYES AND NOT TERRAMYCIN CAPSULE POWDER.
Pigeon pox is caused by Pox virus. Mosquitoes are the usual carriers of this virus. Stagnant water is the breeding ground for mosquitoes and their larvae. Water should not be allowed to stagnate in and around the pigeon lofts. Variolinum is the drug of choice to treat this disease. Give Variolinum 30c, 2 drops to each chick. A single dose would suffice. If the infection is still persisting even after a week, then give Variolinum 200c. Burn the boils with an incense stick (Agarbathi) and apply turmeric. This will prevent the boils from growing in bigger size. Variolinum is a homeopathic drug and is available only in homeopathic medical shops.
***Muscle Wasting (Sookha)***
Muscle Wasting is characterized by loss of muscle(flesh) around the keel bone. Muscle Wasting generally occurs when the pigeons are not provided adequate WATER TWO TIMES A DAY.
Treatment: -Mix mashed raisins (kishmish) and finely ground sesame seeds(til) in the ratio of 2:1 and make small tablets(about the size of a peanut) using honey. Give three tablets to each pigeon in the morning and evening followed by multivitamins and water immediately. The pigeons should not be forcibly fed grains until they start feeding themselves !!!
Coccidiosis is characterized by loss of eye color, paleness of the inside of the mouth, sometimes blood in the droppings, "seed" near the anus/vent, which does not allow the birds to defecate properly due to which they appear uncomfortable while defecating and rapid loss of weight . The "seed" can be gently squeezed out using your fingers when it gets fully grown. If the seed is in initial/early stages " PLEASE DO NOT ATTEMPT TO REMOVE THE SEED". The loss of muscle around the keel bone(SEENEY KI HADDI) is also seen. The pigeon fanciers generally mistake it for muscle wasting disease. This disease is caused by the Eimeria bacteriae.
Treatment:- Amprolium Hydrochloride is the drug of choice to treat this disease. It is sold under the names Amprolium/Amprol/Corid. In India, this medicine is sold under the name Coximar. Vencocci and Kampro-H are the other medicines used for treating this disease.
NOTE: If you do not find this medicine, ask the chemist to give any poultry medicine for Coccidiosis disease.
Mycoplasmosis is characterized by phlegm in the mouth, nasal discharge, difficulty in breathing, watery eyes and sometimes cough. It is caused by Mycoplasma bacteria and hence the name Mycoplasmosis. This is an infectious disease. The transmission takes place generally through faeces, infected feed and drinking water.
Treatment:- Tetracycline is the drug of choice to treat this disease. It is generally sold under the names Subamycin tablet/Terramycin capsule. The infected bird should be treated with 25 mg subamycin tablet/terramycin capsule for three days in the morning. After these three days, birds should be given probiotics(curd or yoghurt) to replace the beneficial bacteria in the gut. Multivitamins should also be administered to the birds for three consecutive days following the administration of probiotics.